But Note Well: is now a function of ! Similarly:
with a function of the angles that define the direction of . Specifically:
The fact that complicates all of the spherical coordinate vector differential forms, although we indicate above a different, more direct way of evaluating them than applying derivatives to the unit vectors themselves before completing the tensor construction of the vector differential operators.
And again, there are many other possible 's, for example, for the bounding surface for hemispherical volume where one piece of it would be a circular surface with an normal like (for example) . This is precisely the surface needed for certain problems you will tackle this semester.
Note that this follows from:
with , , , and , , . Take the contribution from :
because does not depend on , similarly for the other two pieces.