There are five second derivatives. Two are important, and a third could conceivably be important but will often vanish for the same reason. The first rule defines and operator that is arguably the most important second derivative in physics:
The operator is called the Laplacian and it enormously important in both electrodynamics and quantum mechanics. It is the 3d equivalent of , given explicitly by:
Next we have:
(not precisely trivial to prove but important). Also:
which has no simpler form but which is often zero for in electrodynamics. Next:
(not precisely trivial to prove but important). Finally:
which is very important - a key step in the derivation of the 3d wave equation from Maxwell's equations in differential form!