Suppose we are given a center-fed dipole antenna with length (half-wave antenna). We will assume further that the antenna is aligned with the z axis and centered on the origin, with a current given by:

(15.24) |

Note that in ``real life'' it is not easy to arrange for a given current because the current instantaneously depends on the ``resistance'' which is a function of the radiation field itself. The current itself thus comes out of the solution of an extremely complicated

In any event, the current density corresponding to *this* current is

(15.25) |

for and

(15.26) |

for .

When we use the Hansen multipoles, there is little incentive to convert
this into a form where we integrate against the charge density in the
antenna. Instead we can easily and directly calculate the multipole
moments. The magnetic moment is
m_L & = &&int#int;·_L^0&ast#ast; d^3r

& = & I_02&pi#pi; &int#int;_0^2&pi#pi;
&int#int;_0^&lambda#lambda;/4 (kr) j_&ell#ell;(kr) {·&ell#ell;
&ell#ell;m&ast#ast;(0,&phis#phi;) + ·&ell#ell;&ell#ell;m&ast#ast;(&pi#pi;,&phis#phi;) } d&phis#phi;
dr
(where we have done the integral over
). Now,

(15.27) |

(Why? Consider ...) and yet

(15.28) | |||

(15.29) |

Consequently, we can conclude ( ) that

(15.30) |

All magnetic multipole moments of this linear dipole vanish. Since the magnetic multipoles should be connected to the rotational part of the current density (which is zero for linear flow) this should not surprise you.

The electric moments are
n_L & = & &int#int;·_L^0 &ast#ast; d^3r

& = & I_02 &pi#pi; &int#int;_0^2 &pi#pi; &int#int;_0^&lambda#lambda;/4 (kr)
{ &ell#ell;+12&ell#ell;+1 j_&ell#ell;-1(kr) [
·&ell#ell;,&ell#ell;-1m &ast#ast;(0,&phis#phi;) + ·&ell#ell;,&ell#ell;+1m
&ast#ast;(&pi#pi;,&phis#phi;) ] d&phis#phi; dr .

& & - . &ell#ell;2&ell#ell;+ 1 j_&ell#ell;+ 1(kr)
[ ·&ell#ell;, &ell#ell;+1m &ast#ast;(0,&phis#phi;) +
·&ell#ell;,&ell#ell;-1m &ast#ast;(&pi#pi;, &phis#phi;) ] }.
If we look up the definition of the v.s.h.'s on the handout table, the z
components are given by:

(15.31) | |||

(15.32) | |||

(15.33) | |||

(15.34) |

(15.35) |

Examining this equation, we see that all the **even**
terms vanish!
However, all the odd
,
terms do *not* vanish, so we can't
quit yet. We use the following relations:

(15.36) |

(the fundamental recursion relation),

(15.37) |

(true fact) and

(15.38) |

for any two spherical bessel type functions (a valuable thing to know that follows from integration by parts and the recursion relation). From these we get

(15.39) |

Naturally, there is a wee tad of algebra involved here that I have skipped.
You shouldn't. Now, let's figure out the power radiated from this source.
Recall from above that:
P & = & k^22&mu#mu;_0&epsi#epsilon;_0 &sum#sum;_L {
&mid#mid;m_L &mid#mid;^2 + &mid#mid;n_L &mid#mid;^2 }

& = & k^22&mu#mu;_0&epsi#epsilon;_0 &sum#sum;_&ell#ell; odd
n_&ell#ell;,0^2

& = & &pi#pi;I_0^28 &mu#mu;_0&epsi#epsilon;_0 &sum#sum;_&ell#ell; odd
(2&ell#ell;+1&ell#ell;(&ell#ell;+1) ) [ j_&ell#ell;(&pi#pi;/2) ]^2

Now this also equals (recall) , from which we can find the radiation resistance of the half wave antenna:

(15.40) |

We are blessed by this having manifest units of resistance, as we recognize our old friend (the impedance of free space) and a bunch of dimensionless numbers! In terms of this:

(15.41) |

We can obtain a good estimate of the magnitude by evaluating the first few
terms. Noting that

(15.42) | |||

(15.43) |

and doing some arithmetic, you should be able to show that .

Note that the ratio of the first (dipole) term to the third (octupole) term is
|n_3n_1|^2 & = & 712 23
[60&pi#pi;^2 - 6 ]^2

& = & 718
[60&pi#pi;^2 - 6 ]^2 &ap#approx;0.00244
That means that this is likely to be a *good* approximation (the
answer is very nearly unchanged by the inclusion of the extra term).
Even if the length of the antenna is on the order of
, the
multipole expansion is an extremely accurate and rapidly converging
approximation. That is, after all, why we use it so much in all kinds
of localized source wave theory.

However, if we plug in the ``long wavelength'' approximation we previously
obtained for a **short** dipole antenna (with
) we get:
R_rad = (kd)^224&pi#pi;&mu#mu;_0&epsi#epsilon;_0
&ap#approx;48 &Omega#Omega;
which is off by close to a factor of 50%. This is not such a good
result. Using this formula with a long wavelength approximation for the
dipole moment (only) of
n_1,0 &ap#approx;I_0k 23&pi#pi;
yields
, still off by 11%.