new physics we learned in astro

behavior of light

Kirchhoff�s laws

what kind of spectrum (continuous, bright-line, dark-line) comes from what state of matter

 

blackbody laws

Wien�s ( lmax flux  =  constant/T

Stefan�s (surface flux = s T4)

blackbody curve shapes

 

interference

n l = d sin q

 

Doppler effect

(shifting and broadening)

Dl/l = v(radial)/c

 

 photon energy     

 E = hc/l

 

 

 

angular physics

angular size, velocity, and acceleration

 q, w, a




 

angular momentum & conservation

L = Iw   for an extended particle

L = mvr  for a point particle

 

torque

 t   =  force x lever arm x sin q

 

angular version of Newton's 2nd law

DL  =  t Dt



quantum physics
Bohr model of the atom;
quantization of energy levels


Heisenberg uncertainty principle:
why fusion can occur in the sun;
how degenerate matter acquires high speeds to produce high pressure
  DDx  =  h
  DDt  =  h

Pauli exclusion principle
 the behavior of degenerate matter



nuclear physics

mass energy

mc2

particle physics

conservation laws


old: charge, energy, momentum

new: baryon number, lepton    numbers, angular momentum

 

 KE/light released in fusion reactions

 conservation of energy




fluids

Pascal�s principle

P = r g h

 

Archimedes� principle

buoyant force = weight of fluid displaced

 

ideal gas law

P = n k T

 

 

 

temperature and energy transfer

avg KE/particle

3/2 k T

 

energy transfer methods
& conditions under which
they occur

convection

photon diffusion (random walk)

 

 

 

gravitation

grav energy of two point masses

- G M m/d

 

grav energy of a spherical cloud

- G M2/R

 

 Kepler's 3 laws

 


 Newton's version of
 Kepler's 3rd  law
(m1 + m2) P2 = (4p2/G)(a1 + a2)3