new physics we learned in astro

behavior of light

Kirchhoff�s laws

what kind of spectrum (continuous, bright-line, dark-line) comes from what state of matter


blackbody laws

Wien�s ( lmax flux  =  constant/T

Stefan�s (surface flux = s T4)

blackbody curve shapes



n l = d sin q


Doppler effect

(shifting and broadening)

Dl/l = v(radial)/c


 photon energy     

 E = hc/l




angular physics

angular size, velocity, and acceleration

 q, w, a


angular momentum & conservation

L = Iw   for an extended particle

L = mvr  for a point particle



 t   =  force x lever arm x sin q


angular version of Newton's 2nd law

DL  =  t Dt

quantum physics
Bohr model of the atom;
quantization of energy levels

Heisenberg uncertainty principle:
why fusion can occur in the sun;
how degenerate matter acquires high speeds to produce high pressure
  DDx  =  h
  DDt  =  h

Pauli exclusion principle
 the behavior of degenerate matter

nuclear physics

mass energy


particle physics

conservation laws

old: charge, energy, momentum

new: baryon number, lepton    numbers, angular momentum


 KE/light released in fusion reactions

 conservation of energy


Pascal�s principle

P = r g h


Archimedes� principle

buoyant force = weight of fluid displaced


ideal gas law

P = n k T




temperature and energy transfer

avg KE/particle

3/2 k T


energy transfer methods
& conditions under which
they occur


photon diffusion (random walk)





grav energy of two point masses

- G M m/d


grav energy of a spherical cloud

- G M2/R


 Kepler's 3 laws


 Newton's version of
 Kepler's 3rd  law
(m1 + m2) P2 = (4p2/G)(a1 + a2)3