Vol. 152, Nos.1/2

July 2008

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Announcement:       The 2008 Fritz London Prize winners (See Below)


SQUID Measurements of the Susceptibilities of Impurity-Helium Condensates....................................6
         J. Järvinen, C. Paulsen, E.P. Bernard, V.V. Khmelenko and D.M. Lee     

Spin Dynamics of a Trapped Spin-1 Bose Gas above the Bose-Einstein Transition Temperature........21
        Yuki Endo and Tetsuro Nikuni            
                        < > 

New Method for Measuring the Rotation Inertia of a Single 4He Crystal..............................................47
        V.L. Tsymbalenko
                              < >
Helicon-Phonon Resonance in PbSe....................................................................................................56
        L.T. Tsymbal, Ya. B. Bazaliy, A.N. Cherkasov and V.A. Mishin
                                < >    

Role of Coexistence of Superconductivity and Paramagnetism in Magnetostriction of
        F. Inanir
                                        < >
Polaron State Screening by plasmons in a spherical Nanocrystal.........................................................71
        L.C. Fai, A. Fomethe, V.B. Mborong, A.J. Fotue, S. Domngang, N. Issofa and
        M. Tchoffo.

The 2008 Fritz London Memorial Prize Winners

Yuriy_M_Bunkov Vladimir_V_Dmitriev Igor_Fomin

Yuriy M. Bunkov

Vladimir V. Dmitriev

Igor A. Fomin

Yuriy M. Bunkov, Vladimir V. Dmitriev, and Igor A. Fomin have been named winners of the 2008 Fritz London Memorial Prize for their discovery and understanding of the "Phase Coherent Spin Precession and Spin Superfluidity of "3He-B"

This is an award for a unique phenomenon involving spontaneous phase coherent macroscopic precession of the magnetization  in superfluid 3He-B and the flow of spin supercurrent [1, 2]. The latter is a magnetic counterpart of mass-current superfludity in helium liquids and Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) and of charge-current superfluidity in superconductors. It is also an example of the BEC of spin-wave excitations or magnons.

Since their discovery they have established many other consequences of this BEC state, such as the spin supercurrent, spin-current Josephson effect, spin-current vortices, and nontopological solitons (called Q-balls in high energy physics). They also developed new measuring techniques based on coherent spin precession, which made it possible to observe other novel effects in 3He superfluids, such as a vortex terminating on a soliton sheet, the observation of the Goldstone mode of the vortex with non-axisymmetric core in 3He-B, the identification of the order parameter of 3He in aerogel via a measurement of the 3He-B Leggett angle, and the observation of coherent precession in 3He-A, to name a few.

Since its discovery by Osheroff, Richardson and Lee in 1972, superfluid 3He has been a fertile field of research. The purity of the material and the multi-dimensional order parameter manifold have made this quantum state of triplet Cooper pairing an attractive laboratory for the study of the superfluidity in a magnetically ordered quantum liquid crystal environment. The system also has many properties in common with relativistic quantum fields and has turned into a playground for testing several new ideas relevant to particle physics and cosmology. The unusual spin dynamics and NMR properties of superfluid 3He-B are at the source of the discovery. Inhomogeneity in the spin precession frequency creates spin supercurrents, which redistribute the magnetization in such a way that the precession becomes uniform. Traces of long-lived magnetic precessing states had been seen earlier by Corruccini and Osheroff and also by groups at Cornell and in Helsinki. However the first long-lived induction signal with a large amplitude corresponding to the coherent precession of the whole magnetization was discovered and understood by Borovik-Romanov, Bunkov, Dmitriev and Mukharskii in 1984 [1]. The crucial point was the observed time dependence of the precession frequency, which triggered the Fomin theory of the domain with homogeneous precession, whose boundary moves with time [2]. This domain was called the Homogeneously Precessing Domain (HPD). The main property of such precessing states is a coherence of the phase in the Larmor precession throughout the whole domain, which persists even in the presence of inhomogeneous external magnetic fields. This is the first example in nature of a magnetic analog of the off-diagonal long-range order observed in phase-coherent Bose condensates, superfluids, and superconductors. Thus this phenomenon is the first true realization of spin superfluidity.

The three winners are all widely known low temperature physicists:

Yuriy M. Bunkov — worked at the Kapitza Institute in Moscow until 1995, in the laboratory of academician A.V.S. Borovik-Romanov, where he constructed the first nuclear demagnetization refrigerator in Soviet Union and performed much of the early research. Since 1995 he has been “Directeur des Recherches” in the Center of Ultra Low Temperature Research in Grenoble (now Institut NEEL), where he has continued to make important contributions to the subject matter described here. He also participates in measurements in Helsinki, Lancaster, Tokyo, Kosice and Kyoto where he found new types of coherent states in bulk 3He and in 3He in aerogel, and where he has applied his measuring techniques based on coherent precession to quantized vortices in rotating flow. He is well known for his work on the Kibble-Zurek mechanism in superfluid 3He-B, the equivalent of cosmic string formation in cosmological phase transitions.

Vladimir V. Dmitriev — started his career at the Kapitza Institute in Moscow in the experimental group headed by A. Borovik-Romanov and Yu. Bunkov. He participated in the experimental studies of superfluid 3He which led to the original discovery of the Homogeneously Precessing Domain state as well as in further investigations of spin superfluidity.  He is now the head of the Ultra Low Temperature group in the Kapitza Institute and a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He significantly expanded the field of research on magnetically excited coherent spin states with his well-known later work on the first observations of precessing magnetic domains in Fermi liquids and in 3He in aerogel.

Igor A. Fomin — worked at the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics in Moscow and since 1993 at the Kapitza Institute in Moscow. He is a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He constructed the theory of magnetically excited coherent quantum states and of spin supercurrent transport and applied these to the explanation of the actual measurements. He also suggested a theory on the order parameter states of 3He in aerogel.

[1] A.S. Borovik-Romanov, Yu.M. Bunkov, V.V. Dmitriev, and Yu.M. Mukharskiy, "Long Lived Induction Decay Signal Investigations in 3He", JETP Lett. 40, 1033 (1984).
[2] I.A. Fomin, "Long-lived induction signal and spatially nonuniform spin precession in 3He-B", JETP Lett. 40, 1037 (1984).

The Fritz London Memorial Prize

The Fritz London Prize was created to recognize scientists who made outstanding contributions to the advances of the field of Low Temperature Physics. It is traditionally awarded in the first session of the International Low Temperature Conference, which is sponsored by the IUPAP (International Union of Pure and Applied Physics) and was first awarded in 1957. The London Prize was first funded by grants from the A.D. Little Company that made the Collins helium liquefiers. The funding on a regular basis dates back to 1972 when John Bardeen gave his portion of the Nobel Prize to Duke University for an endowment, called "the Fritz London Fund". This was to provide support for the annual Fritz London lecture and for the London Prize, to be awarded at each international LT meeting. In 1994, a second endowment was created at Duke University from a) the balance of funds remaining from the LT20 Conference in Oregon, remitted by Russell Donnelly, and b) a gift from Horst Meyer. This second endowment is called "Fritz London Prize endowment" and is solely intended for the London Prize. Further gifts to this endowment were made in 2000 and 2006 by the Organizers of the LT22  and LT24 Conferences in Helsinki (Finland) and in Orlando (Florida, USA). Furthermore Oxford Instruments Inc. in Abingdon, UK, made generous gifts in cash for all the London prizes awarded since 1996.


The list of previous London Prize winners reads:

1957: N. Kurti (UK)

1960: L.D. Landau (USSR)

1962: J. Bardeen (USA)

1964: D. Schoenberg (UK)

1966: C.G. Gorter (Holland)

1968: W.M. Fairbank (USA)

1970: B.D. Josephson (UK)

1972: A.A. Abrikosov (USSR)

1975: J. Wheatley (USA)

1978: G. Ahlers, W. McMillan, J.M. Rowell (all USA)

1981: J.D. Reppy, A.J. Leggett, I. Rudnick (all USA)

1984: W. Buckel (Germany), O.V. Lounasmaa (Finland), D.J. Thouless (USA)

1987: K.A. Mueller and J.G. Bednorz (Switzerland), J. Kondo (Japan), J. Clarke (USA)

1990: R.C. Dynes (USA), P.C. Hohenberg (USA), A.I. Larkin (USSR)

1993: A. Schmid (Germany), D. Greywall (USA), H. Meyer (USA)

1996: M.H.W. Chan, C. Wieman, E.A Cornell (all USA)

1999: D.F. Brewer (UK), M. Krusius (Finland), W. Ketterle (USA)

2002: R.J. Donnelly (USA), A. Goldman (USA), W. N. Hardy (Canada)

2005: S. Balibar (France), J.C. Séamus Davis (USA), R. Packard (USA)

                                                                                                                       Submitted by Allen Goldman, Chair
                                                                                                                       2008 Fritz London Prize Committee,

                                                                                                                       and based on the nomination by
                                                                                                                       Academician Alexander F. Andreev